Posts Tagged ‘strong typing’

Evidence for the benefits of strong typing, where is it?

August 27th, 2014 2 comments

It is often claimed that writing software using a strongly typed programming language bestows worthwhile benefits. Those making the claims can sometimes be rather vague about exactly what the benefits are, while at other times appear willing to claim almost any benefit. What does the empirical evidence have to say (let’s ignore the what languages are strongly typed elephant in the room)?

Until recently there had been two empirical studies (plus a couple of language comparison experiments; one of the better ones involves the researcher timing himself implementing various algorithms in various languages; Zislis “An Experiment in Algorithm Implementation”), while in the last few years a group has been experimenting away in Germany (three’ish published data sets).

Measuring changes in developer performance caused by the use of different programming languages is very hard, some of the problems include:

  • every person is different: a way needs to be found to take account of differences in subject ability/knowledge/characteristics,
  • every problem is different: it may be easier to write a program to solve a problem using language X than using language Y,
  • it is difficult to obtain experimental subjects.

The experimental procedure adopted by all the experiments discussed here is to:

  1. select two different languages or the same language modified to not support some type constructs,
  2. get students (mostly upper-undergraduates+graduates) to volunteer as experimental subjects,
  3. have each subject use one language to solve a problem and then use the other language to solve the same problem. Each subject is randomly assigned to a group using a given language order (the experiments start out with an equal number of subjects in each group, but not all subjects complete every problem),
  4. in some cases the previous step is repeated for new problems.

Having subjects solve the same problem twice creates the opportunity for learning to occur during the implementation of the first program and for this learning to improve performance during the second implementation. The experimental procedures employed generate information that can be used during the analysis of the data (in my case using a mixed-model in R; download code and all data) to factor this ordering effect into the created model.

So what are the results? In chronological order we have (if you know of anymore published work please tell me):

  • Gannon “An Experimental Evaluation of Data Type Conversions”: Implemented compilers for two simple languages (think BCPL and BCPL+a string type and simple structures; by today’s standards one language is not quiet as weakly typed as the other). One problem had to be solved and this was designed to require the use of features available in both languages, e.g., a string oriented problem (final programs were between 50-300 lines). The result data included number of errors during development and number of runs needed to create a working program (this all happened in 1977, well before the era of personal computers, when batch processing was king).

    There was a small language difference in number of errors/batch submissions; the difference was about half the size of that due to the order in which languages were used by subjects, both of which were small in comparison to the variation due to subject performance differences. While the language effect was small, it exists. To what extent Can the difference be said to be due to stronger typing rather than only one language having built in support for a string type? Who knows, no more experiments like this were performed for 20 years

  • Prechelt & Tichy A Controlled Experiment to Assess the Benefits of Procedure Argument Type Checking: Used two C compilers, one K&R C (i.e., no argument checking of function calls) and the other ANSI C, with subjects solving one problem using both compilers; available output data was time taken by subjects to solve the problem.

    Using the no argument checking compiler slowed implementation time by around 10%, about five times smaller than the variation in subject performance (there was an ordering effect of around 30%).

  • Mayer, Kleinschmager & Hanenberg: Two experiments used different languages (Java and Groovy) and multiple problems; result data was time for subjects to complete the task (Do Static Type Systems Improve the Maintainability of Software Systems? An Empirical Study and An Empirical Study of the Influence of Static Type Systems on the Usability of Undocumented Software). No significant difference due to just language (surprisingly) but differences due to language order, but big differences due to language/problem interaction with some problems solved more quickly in Java and other more quickly in Groovy. Again large variation due to subject performance.

    Another experiment used a single language (Java) and multiple problems involving making use of either Java’s generic types or non-generic types (“Do Developers Benefit from Generic Types?”). Again the only significant language difference effects occurred through interaction with other variables in the experiment (e.g., the problem or the language ordering) and again there were large variations in subject performance.

In summary, when a language typing/feature effect has been found its contribution to overall developer performance has been small.

I think some reasons that the effects of typing have been so small, or non-existent, include (I should declare my belief that strong typing is useful):

  • the use of students as subjects. Most students have very little programming experience relative to professional developers (i.e., under 100 hours vs. thousands of hours). I can easily imagine many student subjects often finding the warnings produced by the type system more confusing than helpful. More experienced developers are in a position to make full use of what a type system offers, and researchers should try to use professional developers as subjects (it is not that hard to obtain such volunteers)
  • the small size of the problems. Typing comes into its own when used to organize and control large amounts of code. I understand the constraints of running an experiment limit the amount of code involved.

C++ vs. Ada: Which language is more strongly typed?

April 17th, 2014 No comments

Programming languages are sometimes categorized as being either weakly or strongly typed. I’m not going to join the often rabid debates over which category a particular language belongs to, but rather discuss the relative type strengths of two languages, C++ and Ada, to see if it is possible to claim that one of them is more strongly typed than the other.

Most programming languages support variables having more than one type (e.g., integer and float are two very common types) and have rules specifying which combinations of differently typed values/variables are permitted to occur in a given context, e.g., C++ allows a value of type int to be assigned to a variable of type float (an implicit conversion is performed), but Ada not perform this implicit conversion and the integer value has to be explicit converted to float before it can be assigned (otherwise a compile time error will be generated).

The more implicit type conversions a language supports the weaker its type system is said to be.

C++ supports more implicit conversions than Ada (others include boolean/int and char/int) and loose type strength points because of this (there is plenty of scope for debate about whether some implicit conversions are more evil than others, but cost/benefit debates are harder to come by).

While C++/Ada differ in their support for implicit conversions they are pretty equal in their support for explicit conversions (e.g., in Ada the code float(23) would convert the integer 23 to a float type). In some cases Ada requires that various hoops be jumped through to make the conversion happen (representation clauses are a great topic to bring up when being lectured about how type safe Ada is, a bit like telling somebody being snobbish that they go to the bathroom like everybody else).

The underlying idea is that the compilation errors generated by these ‘undesirable’ attempted implicit conversions alert the developer to a possible mistake in what they have written. These kinds of messages from the compiler have certainly caught errors in my code, but often the error has been a failure to write the required explicit conversion; every now and again a ‘real’ error is flagged. But I digress, this discussion is about what weak/strong typing is, not about what its costs and benefits might be.

Does Ada have any other feature that increases its type strength with respect to C++?

Both languages allow names to be given to existing types: typedef length_t int; in C++ and subtype length_t is integer; in Ada both define length_t to be a synonym for the integer type, but without resulting in any extra type checks occurring. However, Ada supports a kind of type definition mechanism that does result in extra checks being made by the compiler. In the following code:

subtype length_t is integer;
type time_t is integer;
a : integer;
b : length_t;
c : time_t;
a := b;          -- OK
a := c;          -- Error, type mismatch
a := integer(c); -- OK, explicit conversion

time_t is defined to have a type that is not compatible with integer, even although its underlying representation is the same as the integer type. Mixing variables having types integer and time_t results in a compile time error.

The intended purpose for defining a ‘new’ type and creating variables having that type is to restrict operations on those variables to being with other variables having the same type, e.g., assignment and addition between any variables having type time_t is fine but involving other types results in a compile time error (there are special rules that allow integer literals to general get mixed in). I find that the errors flagged by this kind of checking are mostly very useful.

It is also possible to achieve the same kind of type checking in C++ using template metaprogramming, e.g., the SIunits library. In fact using this technique enables C++ to support a much more general and user friendly range of of ‘strong type’ functionality than is supported by the built-in Ada functionality (it is also possible to use general language functionality in Ada to implement the kind of checking possible in C++, however prior to the 2012 Ada standard the checks occurred at runtime but it now looks like there is a mechanism for doing them at compile time {because it is often possible to switch off runtime checks some people consider them to be weaker than compile time checks})

Fans of subranges (I dearly miss this feature when using C-like languages) can get their fix here.

Is there a rule that extra type strength points are given if a language contains explicit type creation syntax (Ada contains a menagerie of syntax and semantics for doing this kind of stuff), compared to languages that require the use of constructs having many other uses? I don’t see why there should be. The fact that template metaprogramming makes a lot of C++ developers’ head’s hurt means that many will limit themselves to using what others have created, rather than growing project specific libraries; but since when have usability and frequency of use been a major issue in the weak/string type debate?

The score so far is that C++ has lots points to Ada because of its greater support for implicit type conversions, but has held its ground everywhere else.

Can either language pick up any more points?

There is the culture angle. Ada developers have a culture of making use of the type checking functionality provided by the language; this is a skill that has to be learned, you get some type checking for free but the rest has to be designed into the code. C++ developers also have a culture of making use of the type checking functionality provided by the language, i.e., most do not use add-on packages like SIunits.

I am not aware of any studies that have investigated the extent to which developers make use of type checking functionality; pointers to such studies welcome. If there is more ‘strongly typed’ C++ than Ada code out there it is only because there is a lot more C++ code out there.

It is my experience that culture and existing code do color developers’ position on where to draw the line in the weak/strong debate, but don’t effect relative language orderings.

The conclusion is that Ada is more strongly typed than C++, but how much more strongly typed remaines an open question. Both languages require effort from the developer to make full use of the typing functionality that is available.