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Evidence for 28 possible compilers in 1957

May 21st, 2017 2 comments

In two earlier posts I discussed the early compilers for languages that are still widely used today and a report from 1963 showing how nothing has changed in programming languages

The Handbook of Automation Computation and Control Volume 2, published in 1959, contains some interesting information. In particular Table 23 (below) is a list of “Automatic Coding Systems” (containing over 110 systems from 1957, or which 54 have a cross in the compiler column):

Computer System Name or      Developed by        Code M.L. Assem Inter Comp Oper-Date Indexing Fl-Pt Symb. Algeb.
           Acronym   
IBM 704 AFAC                 Allison G.M.         C                      X    Sep 57    M2       M    2      X
        CAGE                 General Electric                 X          X    Nov 55    M2       M    2
        FORC                 Redstone Arsenal                            X    Jun 57    M2       M    2      X
        FORTRAN              IBM                  R                      X    Jan 57    M2       M    2      X
        NYAP                 IBM                              X               Jan 56    M2       M    2
        PACT IA              Pact Group                                  X    Jan 57    M2       M    1
        REG-SYMBOLIC         Los Alamos                       X               Nov 55    M2       M    1
        SAP                  United Aircraft      R           X               Apr 56    M2       M    2 
        NYDPP                Servo Bur. Corp.                 X               Sep 57    M2       M    2 
        KOMPILER3            UCRL Livermore                              X    Mar 58    M2       M    2      X
IBM 701 ACOM                 Allison G.M.         C                X          Dec 54    S1       S    0
        BACAIC               Boeing Seattle       A           X          X    Jul 55             S    1      X
        BAP                  UC Berkeley                X     X               May 57                  2
        DOUGLAS              Douglas SM                       X               May 53             S    1
        DUAL                 Los Alamos                 X          X          Mar 53             S    1
        607                  Los Alamos                       X               Sep 53                  1
        FLOP                 Lockheed Calif.            X     X    X          Mar 53             S    1 
        JCS 13               Rand Corp.                       X               Dec 53                  1
        KOMPILER 2           UCRL Livermore                              X    Oct 55    S2            1      X
        NAA ASSEMBLY         N. Am. Aviation                       X
        PACT I               Pact Groupb          R                      X    Jun 55    S2            1
        QUEASY               NOTS Inyokern                         X          Jan 55             S
        QUICK                Douglas ES                            X          Jun 53             S    0
        SHACO                Los Alamos                            X          Apr 53             S    1
        SO 2                 IBM                              X               Apr 53                  1
        SPEEDCODING          IBM                  R           X    X          Apr 53    S1       S    1
IBM 705-1, 2 ACOM            Allison G.M.         C                X          Apr 57    S1            0
        AUTOCODER            IBM                  R    X      X          X    Dec 56             S    2
        ELI                  Equitable Life       C                X          May 57    S1            0
        FAIR                 Eastman Kodak                         X          Jan 57             S    0
        PRINT I              IBM                  R    X      X    X          Oct 56    82       S    2
        SYMB. ASSEM.         IBM                              X               Jan 56             S    1
        SOHIO                Std. Oil of Ohio          X      X    X          May 56    S1       S    1
        FORTRAN              IBM-Guide            A                      X    Nov 58    S2       S    2      X
        IT                   Std. Oil of Ohio     C                      X              S2       S    1      X
        AFAC                 Allison G.M.         C                      X              S2       S    2      X
IBM 705-3 FORTRAN            IBM-Guide            A                      X    Dec 58    M2       M    2      X
        AUTOCODER            IBM                  A           X          X    Sep 58             S    2
IBM 702 AUTOCODER            IBM                       X      X          X    Apr 55             S    1
        ASSEMBLY             IBM                              X               Jun 54                  1
        SCRIPT G. E.         Hanford              R    X      X    X     X    Jul 55    Sl       S    1 
IBM 709 FORTRAN              IBM                  A                      X    Jan 59    M2       M    2      X
        SCAT                 IBM-Share            R           X          X    Nov 58    M2       M    2
IBM 650 ADES II              Naval Ord. Lab                              X    Feb 56    S2       S    1      X
        BACAIC               Boeing Seattle       C           X    X     X    Aug 56             S    1      X
        BALITAC              M.I.T.                    X      X          X    Jan 56    Sl            2
        BELL L1              Bell Tel. Labs            X           X          Aug 55    Sl       S    0
        BELL L2,L3           Bell Tel. Labs            X           X          Sep 55    Sl       S    0
        DRUCO I              IBM                                   X          Sep 54             S    0
        EASE II              Allison G.M.                     X    X          Sep 56    S2       S    2
        ELI                  Equitable Life       C                X          May 57    Sl            0
        ESCAPE               Curtiss-Wright                   X    X     X    Jan 57    Sl       S    2
        FLAIR                Lockheed MSD, Ga.         X           X          Feb 55    Sl       S    0
        FOR TRANSIT          IBM-Carnegie Tech.   A                      X    Oct 57    S2       S    2      X
        IT                   Carnegie Tech.       C                      X    Feb 57    S2       S    1      X
        MITILAC              M.I.T.                    X           X          Jul 55    Sl       S    2
        OMNICODE             G. E. Hanford                         X     X    Dec 56    Sl       S    2
        RELATIVE             Allison G.M.                     X               Aug 55    Sl       S    1
        SIR                  IBM                                   X          May 56             S    2
        SOAP I               IBM                              X               Nov 55                  2
	SOAP II              IBM                  R           X               Nov 56    M        M    2
        SPEED CODING         Redstone Arsenal          X           X          Sep 55    Sl       S    0
        SPUR                 Boeing Wichita            X      X    X          Aug 56    M        S    1
        FORTRAN (650T)       IBM                  A                      X    Jan 59    M2       M    2
Sperry Rand 1103A COMPILER I  Boeing Seattle                  X          X    May 57             S    1      X
        FAP                  Lockheed MSD              X           X          Oct 56    Sl       S    0
        MISHAP               Lockheed MSD                     X               Oct 56    M1       S    1
        RAWOOP-SNAP          Ramo-Wooldridge                  X    X          Jun 57    M1       M    1
        TRANS-USE            Holloman A.F.B.                  X               Nov 56    M1       S    2
        USE                  Ramo-Wooldridge      R           X          X    Feb 57    M1       M    2
        IT                   Carn. Tech.-R-W      C                      X    Dec 57    S2       S    1      X
        UNICODE              R Rand St. Paul      R                      X    Jan 59    S2       M    2      X
Sperry Rand 1103 CHIP        Wright A.D.C.             X           X          Feb 56    S1       S    0
        FLIP/SPUR            Convair San Diego         X           X          Jun 55    SI       S    0
        RAWOOP               Ramo-Wooldridge      R           X               Mar 55    S1            1
        8NAP                 Ramo-Wooldridge      R           X    X          Aug 55    S1       S    1
Sperry Rand Univac I and II AO Remington Rand          X      X          X    May 52    S1       S    1
        Al                   Remington Rand            X      X          X    Jan 53    S1       S    1
        A2                   Remington Rand            X      X          X    Aug 53    S1       S    1
        A3,ARITHMATIC        Remington Rand       C    X      X          X    Apr 56    SI       S    1
        AT3,MATHMATIC        Remington Rand       C           X          X    Jun 56    SI       S    2      X
        BO,FLOWMATIC         Remington Rand       A    X      X          X    Dec 56    S2       S    2
        BIOR                 Remington Rand            X      X          X    Apr 55                  1
        GP                   Remington Rand       R    X      X          X    Jan 57    S2       S    1
        MJS (UNIVAC I)       UCRL Livermore            X      X               Jun 56                  1
        NYU,OMNIFAX          New York Univ.                              X    Feb 54             S    1
        RELCODE              Remington Rand            X      X               Apr 56                  1
        SHORT CODE           Remington Rand            X           X          Feb 51             S    1
        X-I                  Remington Rand       C    X      X               Jan 56                  1
        IT                   Case Institute       C                      X              S2       S    1      X
        MATRIX MATH          Franklin Inst.                              X    Jan 58    
Sperry Rand File Compo ABC   R Rand St. Paul                                  Jun 58
Sperry Rand Larc K5          UCRL Livermore                   X          X              M2       M    2      X
        SAIL                 UCRL Livermore                   X                         M2       M    2
Burroughs Datatron 201, 205 DATACODEI Burroughs                          X    Aug 57    MS1      S    1
        DUMBO                Babcock and Wilcox                    X     X   
        IT                   Purdue Univ.         A                      X    Jul 57    S2       S    1      X
        SAC                  Electrodata               X      X               Aug 56             M    1
        UGLIAC               United Gas Corp.                      X          Dec 56             S    0
                               Dow Chemical                        X
        STAR                 Electrodata                      X
Burroughs UDEC III UDECIN-I  Burroughs                             X              57    M/S       S   1
        UDECOM-3             Burroughs                                   X        57    M         S   1
M.I.T. Whirlwind ALGEBRAIC   M.I.T.               R                      X              S2        S   1      X
        COMPREHENSIVE        M.I.T.                    X      X    X          Nov 52    Sl        S   1
        SUMMER SESSION       M.I.T.                                X          Jun 53    Sl        S   1
Midac   EASIAC               Univ. of Michigan                     X     X    Aug 54    SI        S
        MAGIC                Univ. of Michigan         X      X          X    Jan 54    Sl        S
Datamatic ABC I              Datamatic Corp.                             X   
Ferranti TRANSCODE           Univ. of Toronto     R           X    X     X    Aug 54    M1        S
Illiac DEC INPUT             Univ. of Illinois    R           X               Sep 52    SI        S
Johnniac EASY FOX            Rand Corp.           R           X               Oct 55              S
Norc NORC COMPILER           Naval Ord. Lab                   X          X    Aug 55    M2        M
Seac BASE 00                 Natl. Bur. Stds.          X           X
        UNIV. CODE           Moore School                                X    Apr 55

Chart Symbols used:

Code
R = Recommended for this computer, sometimes only for heavy usage.
C = Common language for more than one computer.
A = System is both recommended and has common language.
 
Indexing
M = Actual Index registers or B boxes in machine hardware.
S = Index registers simulated in synthetic language of system.
1 = Limited form of indexing, either stopped undirectionally or by one word only, or having
certain registers applicable to only certain variables, or not compound (by combination of
contents of registers).
2 = General form, any variable may be indexed by anyone or combination of registers which may
be freely incremented or decremented by any amount.
 
Floating point
M = Inherent in machine hardware.
S = Simulated in language.
 
Symbolism
0 = None.
1 = Limited, either regional, relative or exactly computable.
2 = Fully descriptive English word or symbol combination which is descriptive of the variable
or the assigned storage.
 
Algebraic
A single continuous algebraic formula statement may be made. Processor has mechanisms for
applying associative and commutative laws to form operative program.
 
M.L. = Machine language.
Assem. = Assemblers.
Inter. = Interpreters.
Compl. = Compilers.

Are the compilers really compilers as we know them today, or is this terminology that has not yet settled down? The computer terminology chapter refers readers interested in Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter to the entry for Routine:

Routine. A set of instructions arranged in proper sequence to cause a computer to perform a desired operation or series of operations, such as the solution of a mathematical problem.

Compiler (compiling routine), an executive routine which, before the desired computation is started, translates a program expressed in pseudo-code into machine code (or into another pseudo-code for further translation by an interpreter).

Assemble, to integrate the subroutines (supplied, selected, or generated) into the main routine, i.e., to adapt, to specialize to the task at hand by means of preset parameters; to orient, to change relative and symbolic addresses to absolute form; to incorporate, to place in storage.

Interpreter (interpretive routine), an executive routine which, as the computation progresses, translates a stored program expressed in some machine-like pseudo-code into machine code and performs the indicated operations, by means of subroutines, as they are translated. …”

The definition of “Assemble” sounds more like a link-load than an assembler.

When the coding system has a cross in both the assembler and compiler column, I suspect we are dealing with what would be called an assembler today. There are 28 crosses in the Compiler column that do not have a corresponding entry in the assembler column; does this mean there were 28 compilers in existence in 1957? I can imagine many of the languages being very simple (the fashionability of creating programming languages was already being called out in 1963), so producing a compiler for them would be feasible.

The citation given for Table 23 contains a few typos. I think the correct reference is: Bemer, Robert W. “The Status of Automatic Programming for Scientific Problems.” Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Computer Applications Symposium, 107-117. Armour Research Foundation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Oct. 24-25, 1957.

Programming Languages: nothing changes

May 14th, 2017 No comments

While rummaging around today I came across: Programming Languages and Standardization in Command and Control by J. P. Haverty and R. L. Patrick.

Much of this report could have been written in 2013, but it was actually written fifty years earlier; the date is given away by “… the effort to develop programming languages to increase programmer productivity is barely eight years old.”

Much of the sound and fury over programming languages is the result of zealous proponents touting them as the solution to the “programming problem.”

I don’t think any major new sources of sound and fury have come to the fore.

… the designing of programming languages became fashionable.

Has it ever gone out of fashion?

Now the proliferation of languages increased rapidly as almost every user who developed a minor variant on one of the early languages rushed into publication, with the resultant sharp increase in acronyms. In addition, some languages were designed practically in vacuo. They did not grow out of the needs of a particular user, but were designed as someone’s “best guess” as to what the user needed (in some cases they appeared to be designed for the sake of designing).

My post on this subject was written 49 years later.

…a computer user, who has invested a million dollars in programming, is shocked to find himself almost trapped to stay with the same computer or transistorized computer of the same logical design as his old one because his problem has been written in the language of that computer, then patched and repatched, while his personnel has changed in such a way that nobody on his staff can say precisely what the data processing Job is that his machine is now doing with sufficient clarity to make it easy to rewrite the application in the language of another machine.

Vendor lock-in has always been good for business.

Perhaps the most flagrantly overstated claim made for POLs is that they result in better understanding of the programming operation by higher-level management.

I don’t think I have ever heard this claim made. But then my programming experience started a bit later than this report.

… many applications do not require the services of an expert programmer.

Ssshh! Such talk is bad for business.

The cost of producing a modern compiler, checking it out, documenting it, and seeing it through initial field use, easily exceeds $500,000.

For ‘big-company’ written compilers this number has not changed much over the years. Of course man+dog written compilers are a lot cheaper and new companies looking to aggressively enter the market can spend an order of magnitude more.

In a young rapidly growing field major advances come so quickly or are so obvious that instituting a measurement program is probably a waste of time.

True.

At some point, however, as a field matures, the costs of a major advance become significant.

Hopefully this point in time has now arrived.

Language design is still as much an art as it is a science. The evaluation of programming languages is therefore much akin to art criticism–and as questionable.

Calling such a vanity driven activity an ‘art’ only helps glorify it.

Programming languages represent an attack on the “programming problem,” but only on a portion of it–and not a very substantial portion.

In fact, it is probably very insubstantial.

Much of the “programming problem” centers on the lack of well-trained experienced people–a lack not overcome by the use of a POL.

Nothing changes.

The following table is for those of you complaining about how long it takes to compile code these days. I once had to compile some Coral 66 on an Elliot 903, the compiler resided in 5(?) boxes of paper tape, one box per compiler pass. Compilation involved: reading the paper tape containing the first pass into the computer, running this program and then reading the paper tape containing the program source, then reading the second paper tape containing the next compiler pass (there was not enough memory to store all compiler passes at once), which processed the in-memory output of the first pass; this process was repeated for each successive pass, producing a paper tape output of the compiled code. I suspect that compiling on the machines listed gave the programmers involved plenty of exercise and practice splicing snapped paper-tape.

Computer   Cobol statements   Machine instructions   Compile time (mins)
UNIVAC II     630                    1,950                240
RCA 501       410                    2,132                 72
GE 225        328                    4,300                 16
IBM 1410      174                      968                 46
NCR 304       453                      804                 40

Uncovering the undefined behaviors

March 7th, 2017 2 comments

I think that all programming languages contain some constructs that have undefined behavior.

The C Standard explicitly lists various constructs as having undefined behavior. It also specifies that: Undefined behavior is otherwise indicated in this International Standard by the words “undefined behavior” or by the omission of any explicit definition of behavior.; the second half of the sentence refers to what might be called implicit undefined behavior. Implicit undefined behavior can be subdivided into intentional and unintentional. Intentional undefined behavior applies to constructs that the committee considered and decided (and continues to decide) to say nothing about (e.g., question 19), while unintentional undefined behavior applies to constructs that the committee did not explicitly consider (when discovered, these often end up as defect reports, which are sometimes resolved as intentionally undefined behavior).

Fans of some languages claim that ‘their’ language does not contain any undefined behaviors.

Ada does not explicitly specify any construct as having undefined behavior, but it does specify that some constructs generate a bounded error; a rose by any other name…

I sometimes bump into language inventors claiming that ‘their’ language is fully specified, i.e., does not contain any undefined behaviors. My first question to them, about the behavior of division involving negative values, invariable requires me to explain that there are two possible ways of doing it (ignorance is bliss when fully specifying a language). The invariable answer is that the behavior is whatever the underlying implementation does (which is often written in C). In other words, they have imported all the undefined behaviors of the implementation language.

Follow-up question include: what is the order of expression evaluation (e.g., left-to-right, right-to-left, inside out…), what is the order of function argument evaluation (often driven by the direction of stack growth), what is the order of initialization and other order related questions that comes to mind. Their fully specified language quickly turns out to be a sham.

A recent post by John Regehr talks about Gödel’s incompleteness Theorem as a source of undefined behavior. My understanding is that the underlying argument is built on non-termination. How is it possible to tell the difference between non-termination and lasting longer than the age of the universe? In itself I don’t think this theorem is a source of undefined behavior; more enlightenment welcome.

Evidence for the benefits of strong typing, where is it?

August 27th, 2014 2 comments

It is often claimed that writing software using a strongly typed programming language bestows worthwhile benefits. Those making the claims can sometimes be rather vague about exactly what the benefits are, while at other times appear willing to claim almost any benefit. What does the empirical evidence have to say (let’s ignore the what languages are strongly typed elephant in the room)?

Until recently there had been two empirical studies (plus a couple of language comparison experiments; one of the better ones involves the researcher timing himself implementing various algorithms in various languages; Zislis “An Experiment in Algorithm Implementation”), while in the last few years a group has been experimenting away in Germany (three’ish published data sets).

Measuring changes in developer performance caused by the use of different programming languages is very hard, some of the problems include:

  • every person is different: a way needs to be found to take account of differences in subject ability/knowledge/characteristics,
  • every problem is different: it may be easier to write a program to solve a problem using language X than using language Y,
  • it is difficult to obtain experimental subjects.

The experimental procedure adopted by all the experiments discussed here is to:

  1. select two different languages or the same language modified to not support some type constructs,
  2. get students (mostly upper-undergraduates+graduates) to volunteer as experimental subjects,
  3. have each subject use one language to solve a problem and then use the other language to solve the same problem. Each subject is randomly assigned to a group using a given language order (the experiments start out with an equal number of subjects in each group, but not all subjects complete every problem),
  4. in some cases the previous step is repeated for new problems.

Having subjects solve the same problem twice creates the opportunity for learning to occur during the implementation of the first program and for this learning to improve performance during the second implementation. The experimental procedures employed generate information that can be used during the analysis of the data (in my case using a mixed-model in R; download code and all data) to factor this ordering effect into the created model.

So what are the results? In chronological order we have (if you know of anymore published work please tell me):

  • Gannon “An Experimental Evaluation of Data Type Conversions”: Implemented compilers for two simple languages (think BCPL and BCPL+a string type and simple structures; by today’s standards one language is not quiet as weakly typed as the other). One problem had to be solved and this was designed to require the use of features available in both languages, e.g., a string oriented problem (final programs were between 50-300 lines). The result data included number of errors during development and number of runs needed to create a working program (this all happened in 1977, well before the era of personal computers, when batch processing was king).

    There was a small language difference in number of errors/batch submissions; the difference was about half the size of that due to the order in which languages were used by subjects, both of which were small in comparison to the variation due to subject performance differences. While the language effect was small, it exists. To what extent Can the difference be said to be due to stronger typing rather than only one language having built in support for a string type? Who knows, no more experiments like this were performed for 20 years

  • Prechelt & Tichy A Controlled Experiment to Assess the Benefits of Procedure Argument Type Checking: Used two C compilers, one K&R C (i.e., no argument checking of function calls) and the other ANSI C, with subjects solving one problem using both compilers; available output data was time taken by subjects to solve the problem.

    Using the no argument checking compiler slowed implementation time by around 10%, about five times smaller than the variation in subject performance (there was an ordering effect of around 30%).

  • Mayer, Kleinschmager & Hanenberg: Two experiments used different languages (Java and Groovy) and multiple problems; result data was time for subjects to complete the task (Do Static Type Systems Improve the Maintainability of Software Systems? An Empirical Study and An Empirical Study of the Influence of Static Type Systems on the Usability of Undocumented Software). No significant difference due to just language (surprisingly) but differences due to language order, but big differences due to language/problem interaction with some problems solved more quickly in Java and other more quickly in Groovy. Again large variation due to subject performance.

    Another experiment used a single language (Java) and multiple problems involving making use of either Java’s generic types or non-generic types (“Do Developers Benefit from Generic Types?”). Again the only significant language difference effects occurred through interaction with other variables in the experiment (e.g., the problem or the language ordering) and again there were large variations in subject performance.

In summary, when a language typing/feature effect has been found its contribution to overall developer performance has been small.

I think some reasons that the effects of typing have been so small, or non-existent, include (I should declare my belief that strong typing is useful):

  • the use of students as subjects. Most students have very little programming experience relative to professional developers (i.e., under 100 hours vs. thousands of hours). I can easily imagine many student subjects often finding the warnings produced by the type system more confusing than helpful. More experienced developers are in a position to make full use of what a type system offers, and researchers should try to use professional developers as subjects (it is not that hard to obtain such volunteers)
  • the small size of the problems. Typing comes into its own when used to organize and control large amounts of code. I understand the constraints of running an experiment limit the amount of code involved.

An ISO Standard for R (just kidding)

July 24th, 2014 4 comments

IST/5, the British Standards’ committee responsible for programming languages in the UK, has a new(ish) committee secretary and like all people in a new role wants to see a vision of the future; IST/5 members have been emailed asking us what we see happening in the programming language standards’ world over the next 12 months.

The answer is, off course, that the next 12 months in programming language standards is very likely to be the same as the previous 12 months and the previous 12 before that. Programming language standards move slowly, you don’t want existing code broken by new features and it would be a huge waste of resources creating a standard for every popular today/forgotten tomorrow language.

While true the above is probably not a good answer to give within an organization that knows its business intrinsically works this way, but pines for others to see it as doing dynamic, relevant, even trendy things. What could I say that sounded plausible and new? Big data was the obvious bandwagon waiting to be jumped on and there is no standard for R, so I suggested that work on this exciting new language might start in the next 12 months.

I am not proposing that anybody start work on an ISO standard for R, in fact at the moment I think it would be a bad idea; the purpose of suggesting the possibility is to create some believable buzz to suggest to those sitting on the committees above IST/5 that we have our finger on the pulse of world events.

The purpose of a standard is to create agreement around one way of doing things and thus save lots of time/money that would otherwise be wasted on training/tools to handle multiple language dialects. One language for which this worked very well is C, for which there were 100+ incompatible compilers in the early 1980s (it was a nightmare); with the publication of the C Standard users finally had a benchmark that they could require their suppliers to meet (it took 4-5 years for the major suppliers to get there).

R is not suffering from a proliferation of implementations (incompatible or otherwise), there is no problem for an R standard to solve.

Programming language standards do get created for reasons other than being generally useful. The ongoing work on C++ is a good example of consultant driven standards development; consultants who make their living writing and giving seminars about the latest new feature of C++ require a steady stream of new feature to talk about and have an obvious need to keep new versions of the standard rolling down the production line. Feeling that a language is unappreciated is another reason for creating an ISO Standard; the Modula-2 folk told me that once it became an ISO Standard the use of Modula-2 would take off. R folk seem to have a reasonable grip on reality, or have I missed a lurking distorted view of reality that will eventually give people the drive to spend years working their fingers to the bone to create a standard that nobody is really that interested in?

Reality in the world of programming language standards

July 16th, 2014 No comments

I see a lot of steam being vented about the standards’ process as applied to programming languages and software related topics. Knowing something about how the process works might help people live calmer lives, at least once they have calmed down after reading this article. What I have to say applies to programming language standards because these are what I have been involved with, as a member and convener of various UK and international committtees, for 25+ years.

  • ISO and your national standards’ body don’t care about the standard you are talking about.

    These organizations are monopolies who are required to demonstrate that documented procedures are followed by all concerned. Can you think of any organizational structure that would create less incentives for those on the inside to listen to those on the outside?

    Yes, these organizations do sell standards but the sales model is all about the long tail and no peak, to speak of, of best sellers. The real business model for running a standards’ organization is to either charge members a fee (your country pays membership dues for each Standards Committee it wants a say in; if your country has not paid to be a member of ISO JTC 1/SC22 you have no say in programming language standards. ANSI in the US charges people for the right to volunteer their time to attend meetings to work on a standard) and/or rely on government subsidy.

    Not being cared about is actually a luxury that people who work in programming language standards should aspire to. The bureaucrats who work in standards hate us; here in the UK there has been at least one attempt to kill off work on programming language standards and I have heard of similar experiences in other countries. The problem is that the standards we produce don’t fit the mold that works for most other standards; programming language standards contain an order of magnitude more pages than the average standard (until recently there was a print run of new standards which then had to be stored until sold and the volume occupied by programming language standards was of note {so I’m reliably informed}), take longer to produce (i.e., more work for the bureaucrats) and all this cost is not justified by the sales figures (which are confidential and last time I saw them only just required me to take my shoes and socks off to count).

  • Standards are created by the volunteers who regularly turn up at meetings.

    It is only the enthusiasm of these volunteers that makes the process work. If you don’t turn up at meetings then what you think does not count (not quite true, something you write might influence the thinking of one of the worker bees who attends meetings resulting in wording in the standard).

    If you really are interested in a standard then become an active member of the committee responsible for it, at least the national one and if you have the time the international one

  • Committee documents can be made public.

    There are no rules preventing a standards committee putting its documents on a website for Joe public to download. The issue is finding somebody willing to do the work of hosting the website (the programming language world is lucky to have Keld Simonsen) and a willingness of committee members to be open about all their documents.

    Looking in from the outside it seems to me that many non-programming language committees want to maintain an aura of mystic and privileged access.

Compiler writing is for hedgehogs

July 2nd, 2014 No comments

It is said that a fox knows many thing, but the hedgehog knows one big thing. An insightful article by Venkatesh Rao (Venkat) showed how foxes and hedgehogs uniquely map to the two contrasting philosophical points of view of those having weak views that are strongly held (a fox) and those having strong views that are weakly held (a hedgehog).

Venkat observes that the many things the fox knows are acquired from multiple sources and that this disparate collection of knowledge is not connected together by any consistent set of core principles; the one big thing that a hedgehog knows consists of knowledge that is connected by a small set of consistent core principles.

An average developer’s knowledge of a language is very fox-like, i.e., it is culled from many particular instances with each snippet of knowledge being accompanied by the experience around which it was obtained. Back in the day, the ‘advanced’ courses I used to give to developers who had 2-3 years experience were really designed to show how the components of a language fitted together, i.e., to provide a structure to what they already knew about the language. Switching developers from an approach based on their experience of particular instances for each language feature to a rule based approach was often hard work, some developers seem to be naturally driven by itemized personal experiences.

Of necessity a compiler writer spends a lot of time studying one programming language (I’m excluding those who invent their own language as they write the compiler for it) and/or hardware cpu. This extended period of study, assuming the developer has sufficient cognitive capacity (the drop out rate is high), creates a heavily interconnected knowledge of the language in the compiler writer’s head, i.e., they understand one thing very deeply and have strong views created by the core rules they have created to organize this knowledge. These views are weakly held because experience shows that every now and again a major insight is achieved that changes the developer’s perspective completely.

This fox-like characteristic of developer language knowledge goes a long way towards explaining why religious language wars go on for so long and can be so ferocious. A fox is arguing from personal experience that is not based on a set of core principles; every point has to be argued because there is nothing connecting them, undermining one idea does not affect the status of the beliefs about anything else.

I am not arguing that being a fox is a good or a bad thing, and I am certainly not arguing that everybody should spend the huge amount of time needed to become a hedgehog (it is not a cost effective use of time). I am simply making an observation about a state of affairs, and one that is likely to continue because there are no incentives in trying to change things.

I think being a major contributor in the creation of any large and complex software system requires that somebody be or become a hedgehog.

I think that many software developers are foxes; of course to people looking in developers appear to be hedgehogs in the world of software.

R now has its own shelf in Dillons

November 25th, 2013 No comments

I was in Dillons, the one opposite University College London, at the start of the week and what did I spy there?

Programming language books

There is now a bookshelf devoted to R (right, second from top) in the programming languages section. The shelf would be a lot fuller if O’Reilly did not have a complete section devoted to their books.

A trolley of C/C++ books was waiting to refill the shelves near the door.

Programming language books

Being adjacent to a university means that programming language books make up a much larger percentage of software books.

Programming language books

And there is O’Reilly in the corner with two stacks of shelves.

Programming language books

And yes, this is a big bookshop, the front is a complete block; computing/mathematics/physics/chemistry/engineering/medicine are in the basement. You can buy skeletons and stethoscopes in the medical section a few rooms down from computing; a stethoscope is useful for locating strange noises in computer cases without having to open them.

Programming language books

Readers a bit younger than me probably know this shop as Waterstones.

Writing language standards is a cottage industry

August 8th, 2012 No comments

In the beginning programming language standards were written by one country’s National Standards body (e.g., ANSI did C/Cobol/Fortran for the USA and BSI did Pascal for the UK) and other countries were free to write their own version, adopt the existing work or do nothing (I don’t know of any country writing their own version, a few countries sometimes stuck their own front page on an existing document and the majority did nothing; update 4 Dec 2012, thanks to David Muxworthy for pointing out that around 1974 the UK, US, Japan and ECMA were all independently developing a standard for BASIC, by 1982 this had evolved to just ANSI and ECMA).

The UK people who created the Pascal Standard wanted the rest of the world (i.e., the US) to adopt it and the way to do this was to have it adopted as an ISO Standard. The experience of making this happen convinced the folk at BSI that in future language standards should be produced as an international effort within ISO (those pesky Americans wanted changes made to the document before they would vote for it).

During the creation of the first C Standard various people from Europe joined the ANSI committee, X3J11, so they could take part. Initially the US members were not receptive to the European request for a mechanism to handle keyboards that did not contain certain characters (e.g., left/right square brackets) but responded promptly on hearing that those (pesky) Europeans planned to publish an ISO C Standard that would contain those changes to the ANSI Standard needed to support trigraphs; the published ANSI Standard included support for trigraphs. The C ANSI committee were very receptive to the idea of future work being done at the ISO level; Bill Plauger/Tom Plum did a lot of good work to ensure it happened.

The C++ language came along and long story short an ISO committee was set up to create an ISO Standard for it, then Java came along and the Java Study Group failed to become an ISO committee and then various nonspecific language committees happened.

A look at the SC22 web site shows that ISO Standards exist for Forth and ECMAscript (it has not yet been updated to include Ruby) with no corresponding ISO committees. What is going on?

One could be cynical and say that special interests are getting a document of their choosing accepted by ECMA and then abusing the ISO fast track procedure to sidestep the need to setup an international committee that has the authority to create a document of its choosing. The reality is that unless a language is very widely used by lots of people (e.g., in the top five or so most commonly used languages) there are unlikely to be enough people (or employers) willing and able to commit the time and money needed to be actively involved in an ISO Standard committee.

Once a documented has been fast tracked to become ISO Standard any updates to it are supposed to be carried out under ISO rules (i.e., an ISO committee). In practice this is not happening with ECMAscript which continues to be very active (I don’t know what is happening with Forth or how the Ruby people plan to handle any updates), holding bi-monthly meetings; over the years they have fast tracked two revisions to the original fast tracked document (the UK did raise the issue during balloting but nothing came of it, I don’t think anybody really cares).

Would moving the ECMAscript development work from ECMA to ISO make a worthwhile difference? There might be a few people out there who would attend an ISO meeting who are not currently attending ECMA meetings (to join ECMA companies with five or less employees pay an annual fee of 3,500 Swiss francs {about the same number of US dollars} and larger companies pay a lot more) but I suspect the number would not be large enough to make up for the extra hassle of running an ISO committee (e.g., longer ISO balloting timescales).

Production of programming language standards is really a cottage industry that relies on friends in high places (e.g., companies with an existing membership of ECMA or connections into the local country standards’ body) for them to appear on the international stage.

Learning R as a language

November 30th, 2011 2 comments

Books written to teach a general purpose programming language are usually organized according to the features of the language and examples often show how a particular language feature is interpreted by a compiler. Books about domain specific languages are usually organized in a way that makes sense in the corresponding application domain and examples usually illustrate how a particular domain problem can be solved using the language.

I have spent a lot of time using R over the last year and by dint of reading lots of R code and various introductions to the language I have managed to piece together a model of the language. I rarely have any trouble learning a general purpose language from its reference manual, but users of domain specific languages are rarely interested in language details and so these reference manuals are usually only intended to be read by people who know the language well (another learning problem is that domain specific languages often contain quirky features rarely seen in other languages; in the case of R I was not lucky enough to know enough other languages to cover all its quirky features).

I managed to one introduction to R written from the perspective of the programming language (and not the application domain): the original The Art of R Programming by Norman Matloff has been expanded and is now available as a book.

Summary. If you know another language and want to quickly learn about the languages features of R I recommend this book. I have not taught raw beginners for over 30 years and have no idea if this book would be of any use to them.

This book does not attempt to teach you to think ‘R’, it is not about the art of R programming. The value of this book is as a single source for a broad coverage of lots of language features explained using lots of examples. Yes, more time could have been spent on the organization and fixing inconsistencies in the layout; these are not show stoppers.

Some people might tell you to buy “Software for Data Analysis” by John Chambers. Don’t; if you are a fan of Finnegans Wake and are nostalgic for the mainframe world of the 1970s you might like to give it a go. (I think Bertrand Meyer’s “Object-oriented Software Construction” is still the best book about the design of a language).

Meanderings. What books are good examples of “The Art of …” writing for domain specific languages? Two that spring to mind are: “Algorithms in Snobol 4″ by James Gimpel (still spotted from time to time on second hand book sites) and more recently “SQL For Smarties: Advanced SQL Programming” by Joe Celko.

Yes, I know that R is not really a domain specific language but a language that is primarily used in one domain. Frink is an example of a language containing a major behavior feature that is specific to its intended application domain. I cannot think of any major language feature of R that is specific to statistics.