Posts Tagged ‘profiling’

Program optimization given 1,000 datasets

January 10th, 2011 No comments

A recent paper reminded me of a consequence of widespread availability of multi-processor systems I had failed to mention in a previous post on compiler writing in the next decade. The wide spread availability of systems containing large numbers of processors opens up opportunities for both end users of compilers and compiler writers.

Some compiler optimizations involve making decisions about what parts of a program will be executed more frequently than other parts; usually speeding up the frequently executed at the expense of slowing down the less frequently executed. The flow of control through a program is often effected by the input it has been given.

Traditionally optimization tuning has been done by feeding a small number of input datasets into a small number of programs, with the lazy using only the SPEC benchmarks and the more conscientious (or perhaps driven by one very important customer) using a few more acquired over time. A few years ago the iterative compiler tuning community started to address this lack of input benchmark datasets by creating 20 datasets for each of their benchmark programs.

Twenty datasets was certainly a step up from a few. Now one group (Evaluating Iterative Optimization Across 1000 Data Sets; written by a team of six people) has used 1,000 different input data sets to evaluate the runtime performance of a program; in fact they test 32 different programs each having their own 1,000 data sets. Oh, one fact they forgot to mention in the abstract was that each of these 32 programs was compiled with 300 different combinations of compiler options before being fed the 1,000 datasets (another post talks about the problem of selecting which optimizations to perform and the order in which to perform them); so each program is executed 300,000 times.

Standing back from this one could ask why optimizers have to be ‘pre-tuned’ using fixed datasets and programs. For any program the best optimization results are obtained by profiling it processing large amounts of real life data and then feeding this profile data back to a recompilation of the original source. The problem with this form of optimization is that most users are not willing to invest the time and effort needed to collect the profile data.

Some people might ask if 1,000 datasets is too many, I would ask if it is enough. Optimization often involves trade-offs and benchmark datasets need to provide enough information to compiler writers that they can reliably tune their products. The authors of the paper are still analyzing their data and I imagine that reducing redundancy in their dataset is one area they are looking at. One topic not covered in their first paper, which I hope they plan to address, is how program power consumption varies across the different datasets.

Where next with the large multi-processor systems compiler writers now have available to them? Well, 32 programs is not really enough to claim reasonable coverage of all program characteristics that compilers are likely to encounter. A benchmark containing 1,000 different programs is the obvious next step. One major hurdle, apart from the people time involved, is finding 1,000 programs that have usable datasets associated with them.

Software maintenance via genetic programming

November 27th, 2009 No comments

Genetic algorithms have been used to find solution to a wide variety of problems, including compiler optimizations. It was only a matter of time before somebody applied these techniques to fixing faults in source code.

When I first skimmed the paper “A Genetic Programming Approach to Automated Software Repair” I was surprised at how successful the genetic algorithm was, using as it did such a relatively small amount of cpu resources. A more careful reading of the paper located one very useful technique for reducing the size of the search space; the automated software repair system started by profiling the code to find out which parts of it were executed by the test cases and only considered statements that were executed by these tests for mutation operations (they give a much higher weighting to statements only executed by the failing test case than to statements executed by the other tests; I am a bit surprised that this weighting difference is worthwhile). I hate to think of the amount of time I have wasted trying to fix a bug by looking at code that was not executed by the test case I was running.

I learned more about this very interesting system from one of the authors when he gave the keynote at a workshop organized by people associated with a source code analysis group I was a member of.

The search space was further constrained by only performing mutations at the statement level (i.e., expressions and declarations were not touched) and restricting the set of candidate statements for insertion into the code to those statements already contained within the code, such as if (x != NULL) (i.e., new statements were not randomly created and existing statements were not modified in any way). As measurements of existing code show most uses of a construct are covered by a few simple cases and most statements are constructed from a small number of commonly used constructs. It is no surprise that restricting the candidate insertion set to existing code works so well. Of course no fault fix that depends on using a statement not contained within the source will ever be found.

There is ongoing work looking at genetic modifications at the expression level. This
work shares a problem with GA driven test coverage algorithms; how to find ‘magic numbers’ (in the case of test coverage the magic numbers are those that will cause a controlling expression to be true or false). Literals in source code, like those on the web, tend to follow a power’ish law but the fit to Benford’s law is not good.

Once mutated source that correctly processes the previously failing test case, plus continuing to pass the other test cases, has been generated the code is passed to the final phase of the automated software repair system. Many mutations have no effect on program behavior (the DNA term intron is sometimes applied to them) and the final phase removes any of the added statements that have no effect on test suite output (Westley Weimer said that a reduction from 50 statements to 10 statements is common).

Might the ideas behind this very interesting research system end up being used in ‘live’ software? I think so. There are systems that operate 24/7 where faults cost money. One can imagine a fault being encountered late at night, a genetic based system fixing the fault which then updates the live system, the human developers being informed and deciding what to do later. It does not take much imagination to see the cost advantages driving expensive human input out of the loop in some cases.

An on-going research topic is the extent to which a good quality test suite is needed to ensure that mutated fault fixes don’t introduce new faults. Human written software is known to often be remarkably tolerant to the presence of faults. Perhaps ensuring that software has this characteristic is something that should be investigated.