Posts Tagged ‘JavaScript’

Source code will soon need to be radiation hardened

May 29th, 2014 2 comments

I think I have discovered a new kind of program testing that may soon need to be performed by anybody wanting to create ultra-reliable software.

A previous post discussed the compiler related work being done to reduce the probability that a random bit-flip in the memory used by an executing program will result in a change in behavior. At the moment 4G of ram is expected to experience 1 bit-flip every 33 hours due to cosmic rays and the rate of occurrence is likely to increase.

Random corrupts on communications links are protected by various kinds of CRC checks. But these checks don’t catch every corruption, some get through.

Research by Artem Dinaburg looked for, and found, occurrences of bit-flips in domain names appearing within HTTP requests, e.g., a page from the domain being requested rather than from A subsequent analysis of DNS queries to VERISIGN’S name servers found “… that bit-level errors in the network are relatively rare and occur at an expected rate.” (the 2.10^{-9} bit error rate was thought to occur inside routers and switches).

Javascript is the web scripting language supported by all the major web browsers and the source code of JavaScript programs is transmitted, along with the HTML, for requested web pages. The amount of JavaScript source can dwarf the amount of HTML in a web page; measurements from four years ago show users of Facebook, Google maps and gmail receiving 2M bytes of Javascript source when visiting those sites.

If all the checksums involved in TCP/IP transmission are enabled the theoretical error rate is 1 in 10^17 bits. Which for 1 billion users visiting Facebook on average once per day and downloading 2M of Javascript per visit is an expected bit flip rate of once every 5 days somewhere in the world; not really something to worry about.

There is plenty of evidence that the actual error rate is much higher (because, for instance, some checksums are not always enabled; see papers linked to above). How much worse does the error rate have to get before developers need to start checking that a single bit-flip to the source of their Javascript program does not result in something nasty happening?

What we really need is a way of automatically radiation hardening source code.

Open source: monoculture is more desirable than portability

March 8th, 2014 No comments

An oft repeated fable is that open source software is portable, all thanks to C and Unix. The reality is that open source lives in an environment that is evolving to become a monoculture that does not require portability, this is being driven by the law of the jungle.

First some background and history. Portability requires that source code have the same behavior on different platforms, or rather than programs built from that code have the same behavior, this requires that:

  • all compilers assign the same semantics to a given piece of code,
  • all operating systems include support the same set of libraries in the same way.

If you want portability across lots of compilers then Fortran has stood head and shoulders above the competition for decades. Now some C folk may point out that they have been compiling some large code base for decades, with few changes necessitated by compiler differences; yes this has been possible in certain niche markets where there is a dominant supplier who has a vested interest in not breaking customer code. C has a long history of widespread large variation in behavior of across compilers.

What about Cobol you ask? Cobol is all about data manipulation and unless you have data in the format expected by a Cobol program you have no need for that program. Nobody cares about portable Cobol programs unless they are also interested in portable data.

If you want portability across lots of operating systems the solution has always been to minimise the dependency on system/third-party library calls (to the extent of including source code for functionality often supported by an OS). The reason for minimising OS dependency is the huge variation in support for different libraries and a wide range of behaviors for supposedly the same functionality. But you say, Unix is an OS that did/does provide a common set of libraries that have the same behavior; no, this is history seen through rose tinted glasses as anyone who knows about the Unix wars will tell you.

In the last century, to experience ‘portability’ Unix developers had to live in a monoculture of either PDP-11s or Sun workstations.

Open source, as it existed in the 1970s, 80s and into the 90’s was Fortran code that ran on a surprisingly wide range of OS/cpu/compilers, along with a smattering of other languages. Back then there were not many software applications and when they did exist many were written in Fortran (Oracle being an early, lots of Fortran, example), this created a strong incentive for vendors to support a Fortran compiler that did things the same way as everybody else (which did not prevent them adding proprietary goodies to try and lure customers towards lock-in).

How did we get to today’s dominance of C and Unix? Easy, evolution at a rate that caused competitors to die out until there was a last man standing. That last man standing was gcc and Linux. The portability problem has been solved by removing the need to port code; it is compiled by the same compiler to run on the same cpu (Intel x86 family) to run under the same OS (Linux).

Of course some of today’s open source C is compiled using non-gcc compilers, but the percentage is small and specialised (a lot of the older code is portable because it used to exist in a multi-compiler/cpu/OS world and had to evolve into being portable). The gcc competitor, llvm, is working long and hard to ensure compatibility and somehow has to differentiate itself while being compatible, a tough fight for developer hearts and minds.

Differences in CPU characteristics are a big headache to any compiler writer wanting to support identical behavior across platforms; having a single cpu family as the market leader more or less solves this problem. ARM has become a major player in the CPU world, but it shares many developer visible characteristics with Intel x86 (e.g., 32-bit int, 64-bit long, pointer and ints are the same size and IEEE floating-point) and options are available for handling some of the other potential differences (e.g., right shift of signed integers).

The Unix wars have not gone away, they have moved to more far flung battlefields leaving behind some hard fought over common ground. Anybody who wants to see the scares left by these war only needs to look at the #ifs in system headers or the parameters selected inside .configure files.

Having everybody use the same compiler/cpu/OS saves having to make a huge time/money investment in making software portable, at least until the invention of photonic computers or the arrival of aliens (whose computers are unlikely to contain a CPU that shares Intel/ARM characteristics or have the same libraries as Linux).

C/Linux has not won in the sense that competitors have given up; in 20 years time the majority of open source in active use might be Javascript running inside a browser.

Will programming languages now have to follow ISO fast-track rules?

February 4th, 2013 No comments

A while back I wrote about how updated versions of ECMAscript (i.e., the Standard for Javascript) had twice been fast tracked to replace an existing ISO Standard, however the ISO rules require that once a document becomes one of its standards all future work be done using the ISO process (i.e., you only supposed to get the one original fast track and then you have to get at least half a dozen countries to say they will actively participate in ongoing work). Thirteen years after I asked why it was being allowed to happen (as I recall I only raised the issue because I thought I had misunderstood the rules, not because I had a burning desire to enforce them) the issue has suddenly sprung to life (we are talking Standard’s world ‘sudden’ here), with a question being raised at the last SC22 meeting and a more detailed one being prepared by BSI for the next meeting (they occur once per year).

The Elephant in the room here is ISO/IEC 29500:2008, not a programming language but Microsoft’s Office Open XML; there was quite a bit of fuss when this was fast tracked.

If the ISO rules on one-time only use of the fast track process was limited to programming languages I imagine the bureaucrats in Geneva would probably never get to hear about it (SC22 would probably conclude that there was not enough interest in the various documents outside of the submitting country to form an active ISO working group; so leave well alone).

ISO sells over 19,000 standards and has better things to do than spend time on the goings on in an unfashionable part of the galaxy, unless, that is, it has the potential to generate lots of fuss that undermines credibility.

Will Microsoft try to fast track an updated version of ISO 29500? I don’t even know if they are updating it. The possibility that ISO 29500 might be updated and submitted for fast track will make it hard for SC22 to agree to any future fast-track updates to existing ISO Standards it is responsible for.

The following is a list of documents that have been fast tracked to become an ISO Standard:

ECMA-262 (1st edn) = ISO 16262:1998
ECMA-262 (3rd edn) = ISO 16262:1999
ECMA-262 (5th edn) = ISO 16262:2011

ECMA-334 (2nd edn) = ISO 23270:2003
ECMA-334 (4th edn) = ISO 23270:2006

ECMA-335 (2nd edn) = ISO 23271:2003
ECMA-335 (6th edn) = ISO 23271:2012

ECMA standards fast-tracked to ISO and not yet revised:
ECMA-149 PCTE part 1 = ISO 13719-1:1998
ECMA-158 PCTE part 2 = ISO 13719-2:1998
ECMA-162 PCTE part 3 = ISO 13719-3:1998
ECMA-230 PCTE IDL binding = ISO 13719-4:1998
ECMA-367 EIFFEL = ISO 25436:2006
ECMA-372 C++/CLI -> DIS 26926; failed DIS ballot and project cancelled

Replaced rather than revised under JTC1 rules:
CHILL (from CCITT): ISO standards 9496:1989, 9496:1995, 9496:1998, 9496:2003
MUMPS/M (from Mass Gen Hospital/ANSI): ISO standards 11756:1992, 11756:1999

Non-ECMA documents fast-tracked through ISO and not yet revised:
FORTH (from FORTH Inc): ISO 15145:1997
JEFF (from J consortium): ISO 20970:2002
Ruby (from Japanese Industrial Standards Committee): ISO/IEC 30170:2012

Generating code that looks like it is human written

April 11th, 2012 No comments

I am very interested in understanding the patterns of developer behavior that lead to the human characteristics that can be found in code. To help me get some idea of how well I understand this behavior I have decided to build a tool that generates source code that appears to be written by human programmers. I hope to reach a point where I can offer a challenge to tell the difference between generated code and human written code.

The three main production techniques I plan to use are, in increasing order of relatedness to humans production techniques, are:

  1. Random generation based on percentage occurrence of language constructs obtained from measurements of existing source. This is the simplest approach and the one furthest away from common developer behavior; even so there are things that can be learned from this information. For instance, the theory that developers are more likely to create a function once code becomes heavily nested code implies that the probability of encountering an if-statement decreases as nesting depth increases; measurements show the probability of encountering an if-statement remaining approximately constant as depth of nesting increases.
  2. Behavior templates. People have habits in everyday life and also when writing software. While some habits are idiosyncratic and not encountered very often there are some that appear to be generally used. For instance, developers tend to assign a fixed role to every variable they define (e.g., stepper for stepping through a succession of values and most-recent holder holding the latest value encountered in going through a succession of values).

    I am expecting/hoping that generation by behavioral templates will result in code having some of the probabilistic properties seen in human code, removing the need for purely random generation driven by low level language probability measurements. For instance, the probability of a local variable appearing in a function is proportional to the percentage of its previous occurrences up to that point in the source of the function (percentage = occurrences_of_X / occurrences_of_all_local_variables) and I am hoping that this property appears as emergent behavior from generating using the role of variable template.

  3. Story telling. A program is like the plot of a story, it has a cast of characters (e.g., classes, functions, libraries) that perform various actions and interact with each other in order to achieve various goals, there are subplots (intermediate results are calculated, devices are initialized, etc), there are resource limits, etc.

    While a lot of stories are application domain specific there are subplots common to many stories; also how a story is told can be heavily influenced by the language used, for instance Prolog programs have a completely different structure than those written in procedural languages such as Java. I want to stay away from being application specific and I don’t plan to tackle languages too far outside the common-or-garden procedural variety.

    Researchers have created automatic story generators; the early generators were template based while more recent systems have used an agent based approach. Story based generation of code is my ideal, but I am a long way away from having enough knowledge of developer behavior to be more than template based.

In a previous post I described a system for automatically generating very simply C programs. I plan to build on this system to incrementally improve the ‘humanness’ of the generated code. At some point, hopefully before the end of this year, I will challenge people to tell the difference between automatically generated and human written code.

The language I have studied the most is C and this will be the main target. I don’t want to be overly C specific and am trying to decide on a good second language (i.e., lots of source available for measurement, used by lots of developers and not too different from C). JavaScript is the current front runner, it is a class-less object oriented language which is not ‘wildly’ OO (the patterns of usage in human written OO code continue to evolve at a rapid rate which can make a lot of human C++/Java code look automatically generated).

As well as being a test bed for understanding of human generated code other uses for an automatic generator include compiler stress testing and providing code snippets to an automated fault fixing tool.