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Posts Tagged ‘instructions’

Programs spent a lot of time repeating themselves

January 18th, 2013 No comments

Inexperienced software developers are always surprised that programs used by lots of people can contain many apparently non-trivial faults and yet continue to operate satisfactorily; experienced developers become familiar with this state of affairs and tend to shrug their shoulders. I have previously written about how software is remarkably fault tolerant. I think this fault tolerance is telling us something important about the characteristics of software and while I have some ideas about what it might be I don’t yet have a good handle (or data) on what is going on to lay out my argument.

In this article I’m going to talk about another characteristic of program execution which I think is connected to program fault tolerance and is also very surprising.

Software differs from hardware in that for a given set of inputs a program will always produce the same output, it will not wear out like hardware and eventually do something different (to simplify things I’m ignoring the possible consequences of uninitialized variables and treating any timing dependencies as part of the input set). So for a fault to be observed different input is required (assuming one exists and none appeared for the first input set).

I used to assume that during a program’s execution the basic cpu operations (e.g., binary arithmetic and bitwise operations) processed a huge number of different combinations of input values (e.g., there are 2^16 * 2^16 / 2 combinations of input value for a 16-bit add operation) and was very surprised to find out this is not the case. For many programs around 80% of all executed instructions are repeat instructions, that is a given instruction, such as add, operates on the same combinations of input values that it has previously operated on (while executing the program) to generate an output value that is identical to the one previously generated from these input values. If we count the number of static instructions in the program (i.e., the number of assembly instructions in a listing of the disassembled executable program) then 20% of them account for 90% of the repeated instructions; so a small amount of code (i.e., 20%) is not only responsible for most dynamically executed instructions but around 72% (i.e., 80%*90%) of these instructions repeat previous computations. If a large percentage of a what goes on internally within a program is repetition is it any surprise that once it works for a reasonable set of inputs it will probably work on other inputs?

Hang on you say, perhaps the percentage of repeat instructions is very high for a given set of external input values (e.g., a file to compress, compile or display as a jpeg) but there is a lot of variation in the set of repeat instructions between different external inputs. Measurements suggest this is not the case, with around 20% of dynamic instructions having input values that can be traced to external program input (12-30% come from globally initialized variables and the rest are generated internally).

There is a technical detail that reduces the repeat instruction percentages given about by a factor of two; researchers always like to give the most favorable numbers and for this discussion we need to make a distinction between local repetition which counts one instruction and its inputs/outputs at a particular point in the code and global repetition which counts all instructions of a given kind irrespective of where they occur in the code. A discussion of fault behavior needs to look at local repetition, not global repetition; there is a factor of two difference in the dynamic percentage and some reduction in the percentage of static instructions involved.

Sometimes the term redundant computation is used, as if the cpu should remember what happened last time it executed an instruction with a particular set of inputs and reuse the answer it got last time. Researchers have proposed caching the results of executing an instruction with a given set of input values and speeding things up or saving power by reusing previous results rather than recalculating them (a possible speedup of 13% on SPEC95 is claimed for a reuse buffer containing 4096 entries).

So a small percentage of the instructions in a program account for most of the execution time (a generally known characteristic) and around 30% of the executed instructions operate on input values they have processed before to produce output they have produced before (to the extent that a cache containing a few thousand entries is big enough to hold the a large percentage of the duplicates). If encountering a new fault requires different execution behavior to occur then having a large percentage of a program always doing the same thing (i.e., same input values same output value) will have a significant impact on the likelihood of encountering a fault. Part of the reason programs are fault tolerant is because external input values don’t have a big an impact on program behavior as we might have thought.

Researchers have also investigated repeats involving units larger than one instruction, such as sub-blocks (a sequence of instructions smaller than a basic block) and even complete functions or just the mathematical ones.

The raw data is obtained using cpu simulators to monitor programs as they are executed, logging the values read as input by an instruction and the value generated as output (in most cases the values are read from registers and written to a register). A single study might log billions of instructions from the SPEC benchmark.

Register vs. stack based VMs

September 17th, 2009 3 comments

Traditionally the virtual machine architecture of choice has been the stack machine; benefits include simplicity of VM implementation, ease of writing a compiler back-end (most VMs are originally designed to host a single language) and code density (i.e., executables for stack architectures are invariably smaller than executables for register architectures).

For a stack architecture to be an effective solution two conditions need to be met:

  • The generated code has to ensure that the top of stack is kept in sync with where the next instruction expects it to be. For instance, on its return a function cannot leave stuff lying around on the stack like it can leave values in registers (whose contents can simply be overwritten).
  • Instruction execution needs to be generally free of state, so an add-two-integers instruction should not have to consult some state variable to find out the size of integers being added. When the value of such state variables have to be saved and restored around function calls they effectively become VM registers.

Cobol is one language where it makes more sense to use a register based VM. I wrote one and designed two machine code generators for the MicroFocus Cobol VM and always find it difficult to explain to people what a very different kind of beast it is compared to the VMs usually encountered.

Parrot, the VM designed as the target for compiled PERL, is register based. A choice driven, I suspect, by the difficulty of ensuring a consistent top-of-stack and perhaps the dynamic typing of the language.

On register based cpus with 64k of storage the code density benefits of a stack based VM are usually sufficient to cancel out the storage overhead of the VM interpreter and support a more feature rich application (provided speed of execution is not crucial).

If storage capacity is not a significant issue and a VM has to be used, what are the runtime performance differences between a register and stack based VM? Answering this question requires compiling and executing the same set of applications for the two kinds of VM. Something that until 2001 nobody had done, or at least not published the results.

A comparison of the Java (stack based) VM with a register VM (The Case for Virtual Register Machines) found that while the stack based code was more compact, fewer instructions needed to be executed on the register based VM.

Most VM instructions are very simple and take relatively little time to execute. When hosted on a pipelined processor the main execution time overhead of a VM is the instruction dispatch (Optimizing Indirect Branch Prediction Accuracy in Virtual Machine Interpreters) and reducing the number of VM instructions executed, even if they are larger and more complicated, can produce a worthwhile performance improvement.

Google has chosen a register based VM for its Android platform. While licensing issues may have been a consideration there are a number of technical advantages to this decision:

  • A register VM is likely to have an intrinsic performance advantage over a stack VM when hosted on a pipelined processor.
  • Byte code verification is likely to be faster on a register VM (i.e., faster startup times) because stack height integrity checks will be greatly simplified.
  • A register VM will be more forgiving of incorrect code (in the VM, generated by the compiler, code corrupted during program transmission or storage attacked by malware) than a stack VM.