Posts Tagged ‘industry’

Unappreciated bubble research

June 7th, 2017 No comments

Every now and again an academic journal dedicates a single issue to one topic. I laughed when I saw the topic of an upcoming special issue on “Enhancing Credibility of Empirical Software Engineering”.

If you work in industry, you probably have a completely different interpretation of the intent of this issue, compared to somebody working in academia, i.e., you think the topic is about getting academic researchers to work on stuff of interest to industry. In academia the issue is about getting industry to treat the research work being done in universities as relevant to their needs, i.e., industry just does not appreciate how useful the work being done in universities is to solving real world problems.

Yes fellow industrialists, the credibility problem is all down to us not appreciating the work of those hard-working academics (I was once at a university meeting and the Dean referred to the industrialists at the meeting, which confused me because I did not know any were present; sometime later the penny dropped and I realised he was talking abut me and another guy who was working in industry).

The real problem is that most research academics have little idea what goes on in industry and what research results might be of interest to industry. This is not surprising given that the academic career ladder keeps people within the confines of the university bubble.

I regularly have academics express surprise that somebody in industry, i.e., me, knows about this-that-or-the-other. This baffled me for a while, until I realised that many academics really do regard people working in industry as simpletons; I now reply that its because I paid more for my degree and did not have the usual labotomy before graduating. Now they are baffled.

The solution to the problem of industrial research relevance is for academics to be willing to move outside the university bubble, to go out and interact with people in industry. However, there are powerful incentives pushing academics away from talking to industry:

  • academic performance is measured by papers published and the chances of getting a paper published are improved if it involves a fashionable topic (yes fellow industrialists, academics suffer from this problem too). Stuff that industry is interested in is not fashionable, at least not yet. I don’t see many researchers being willing to risk working on very unfashionable topics in the hope that their work might get published,
  • contact with industry will open the eyes of many academics to the interesting work being done there and the much higher paying jobs available (at least for those who are any good). Heads’ of department don’t want to lose their good people and have every incentive to discourage researchers having any contact with industry. The senior staff are sufficiently embedded in the system that they can be trusted to talk to industry, rather like senior communist party members being allowed to visit the West during the cold war.

An alternative way for academic research to connect with industry is for the research to be done by people with a lot of industry experience. There are a surprising number of people working in industry who are bored and are contemplating doing a PhD for something interesting to do (e.g., a public proclamation).

Again there are powerful incentives pushing against industry contact. PhD students do the academic grunt work and so compliant people are needed, i.e., recent graduates who will accept that this is how things work, not independent people who know better (such as those with a decent amount of industry experience). Worries about industrialists not being willing to tow-the-line with respect to departmental thinking are probably groundless, plenty of this sort of thing goes on in industry.

I found out at the weekend that only one central London university offers a computing related part-time PhD program (Birkbeck; few people can afford to a significant drop in income); part-time students are not around to do the grunt work.

Cloning research needs a new mantra

August 22nd, 2013 2 comments

The obvious answer to software engineering researchers who ask why their findings are not applied within industry is that their findings provide no benefits to industry. Anyone who digs into the published research finds that in fact there is lots of potentially useful stuff in there, the problem is that researchers often take too narrow a perspective.

A good example of a research area that is generally ignored by industry but has potential for widespread benefits is software cloning; that is chunks of source code that are duplicated within the same application (a chunk may be as little as five lines or may be more, and the definition of duplicate varies from exactly the same character sequence, through semantic equivalence to chilling out with a certain percentage of lines being the same {with various definitions for ‘same’}). (This is not about duplication of code in multiple versions of the same product, we all know how nasty that can be to maintain).

Researchers regard cloning as bad, while I suspect many developers are neutral on the subject or even in favor of creating and using duplicate code.

Clone research will be ignored by industry while researchers continue to push the mantra “clones are bad”. It just does not gel with industry’s view.

Developers are under pressure to deliver working software; if they can save time by (legally) making use of existing code then there is an immediate benefit to them and their employer. The researchers’ argument is that clones increase maintenance costs (a fault being fixed in one of the duplicates but not the other(s) is often cited as the killer case for all clones being bad). What developers know is that most code is never maintained (e.g., is is rewritten, or never used again or works fine and does not need to be changed).

Do company’s that own software care about it containing clones? They are generally more interested in meeting deadlines and being first to market. If a product is a success it will be worth paying its maintenance costs; why risk spending extra time/money on creating a beautifully written product when most products don’t well well enough to be worth maintaining? If the software is bespoke, for in-house use or by a client, then increased maintenance costs are good for those involved in writing the software (i.e., they get paid to maintain it).

The new clone research mantra should be that clones have benefits and costs, and the research results help increase benefits and decrease costs. How does this increase/decrease work? You’re the researchers, you tell me.

My own experience with clones is that they do sometimes multiply costs (i.e., work has to be done more than once) but overall their creation and use is very cost effective, as for ‘missed’ fault fixes clones are a small subset of this use case.

I have heard of projects where there has been rampant copying, plus minor modification, of code within the project. If such projects fail then the issue is one of project management and control, with cloning being one of the consequences.

The number of clones usually found in a large software system is surprisingly high; . If you want to check out the clones in your own code CCFinder is well worth a look. The most common use for such tools is plagiarism detection.

Wot, apply academic work in industry?

May 15th, 2013 No comments

Academics often moan about industry not making use of their work (or at least they do within the code analysis niche I frequent, I have no real knowledge of other niches). There are three reasons for this state of affairs:

  1. The work that most academics do has no practical relevance to industry. This is the lion’s share of the reason and something that many academics will agree with if none of their colleges are likely to overhear them. I suspect many academics are not too fussed that their work is not used by industry and are happy to continue working on things they find interesting (or that they can write papers about that disconnected souls are happy to see published).
  2. Very very few people in the software industry ever read academic papers. But hey, not reading manuals is regarded as a badge of honour. Some people do read manuals and are quickly elevated to expert status. Academic papers do have a very low signal to noise ratio and learning to speed read them to locate the gold nuggets takes practice.
  3. If an academic’s work is applied by some company the last thing those involved will do is say anything about it. Industry is a cut-throat place and what is to be gained by freely giving useful information to the competition?

    The second product my company ever produced was a range of code generators for an intermediate code that was currently interpreted; how best to match the patterns in the intermediate code and also reuse as much as possible for the different cpu targets? I found a solution in Mahadevan Ganapahi’s PhD thesis and now 33 years after publishing it he gets some credit for a long gone industrial application.