There was an interesting turn of events in the Oracle vs. Google Java API lawsuit last friday. The original trial judge had ruled that an API are not copyrightable; last week the US federal Court of appeals reversed this decision, APIs are copyrightable. This legal battle is not over and the ruling can flip and flop its way up to the US supreme court, and not being a lawyer I’m happy to leave the legal discussion to others. Let’s assume that Oracle eventually win their Java API copyright claim, what does that mean for computer language usage and software developers?
If Oracle’s API copyright claim is upheld then they are potentially in line for a huge payout (Google might get to wiggle out of paying much via a fair use justification). I’m sure that some people will claim that this ‘win’ will kill off Java, even if this is true (I don’t think it is), what do the suits care? Give me a billion dollars and I will happily support the removal of any computer language from planet Earth.
In the early days of Android Google needed Java compatibility more than Java needed anything to do with Android. Now Android has such a commanding market share Google does not need to worry so much about Java compatibility. If Oracle had any interest in the future of Java they would be worried that this court case could result in Google switching the Android ecosystem to using a slightly incompatible Java-like language. In practice this court case is the only real opportunity for Oracle to make serious money from their Java intellectual property and they are not that excited about a steady stream of peanuts from future goings on.
What does Oracle winning the API copyright claim mean for developers?
If Google do launch a Java-like language then Java’s “write once run anywhere” mantra will be less true than it currently is (by avoiding a few traps and not straying too far from the well trodden path Java developers can create programs that are remarkable portable). In its market niche there is no other language that comes close to providing the kind of portability that Java offers, so existing users will be annoyed at having to worry about one more portability issue but are unlikely to jump ship.
The much more interesting question is the impact an Oracle win has on other companies producing products that include an API; they now have something to wave at competitors who have API-alike (I just made that word up) products. Any developer using an API that has its very own copyright discussion thread is likely to become a bit twitchy. The general result will be a cloud of uncertainty over some existing APIs from some providers.
Anybody introducing a new API will have to answer the ‘copyright’ question: “Do you claim copyright on your API?” In practice a very very small percentage of APIs ever get copied/cloned, because most fail or the competition comes up with what they think is a better API.
Would I care if a company claims copyright on its API and says it will sue anybody who copies/clones it? Obviously I have to use that API if it is the only way to get a job done, but what if I had a choice between it and a non-copyrighted API? I don’t think the question of copyright would be an issue for me, but I would be concerned if any company was being overly legalistic; do I really want to deal with a company more interested in legal matters than supporting developers? I think not.
The R Foundation has been accepted for Google’s summer of code and I thought I would suggest a few ideas for projects. My interests are in optimization and source code analysis, so obviously the suggestions involve these topics.
There are an infinite number of possible optimizations that can be applied to code (well, at least more than the number of atoms in the known universe). The first job for any optimization project is to find the common characteristics of the code; once these are known the available resources can be concentrated on improving the performance of these common cases (as they evolve optimizers necessarily attack less frequently occurring constructs and in rare cases address a previously unnoticed common pattern of behavior).
What are the common characteristics of R programs? I have no idea and have not seen any published empirical analysis on the subject. Analysing the characteristics of the R source code ecosystem would make a very good summer project. The analysis could be static, based purely on the source, or dynamic, looking at the runtime characteristics. The purpose of analyse is to gain a general understanding of the characteristics of R code and to investigate whether specific kinds of optimizations might be worthwhile. Often optimizations are suggested by the results of the analysis and in some cases optimization possibilities that were thought to be worthwhile turn out to have little benefit. I will stick my neck out and suggest a few optimizations that I think might be worthwhile.
- Reducing object copying through last usage analysis. In R function arguments are passed using call-by-value, that is a copy of the argument is made and passed to the called function. For large arguments call-by-value is very time consuming and if the value of the argument is not used after the called function returns the copy operation is redundant. I think it would be a worthwhile optimization for the R compiler to replace call-by-value with call-by-reference in those cases where the current argument is not read again and is modified during the call (the R implementation uses copy-on-write so there is overhead minimal overhead if the argument is only ever read); analysis is needed to verify this hunch.
- Operations on short vectors. Many processors have instructions that simultaneously perform the same operation on a small number of values (e.g., the Intel/AMD SSE instructions). If it is possible to figure out that the two vectors involved in an add/subtract/multiple/etc are short, the same length, do not contain any NA, then a ‘short-operation’ instruction could be generated (when running on processors without the necessary support the R interpreter would implement these the same way as the longer forms). Analysis is needed to find out how often short vector operations occur in practice.
- Do R programs spend most of their time executing in C/Fortran routines or in R code? If the answer is C/Fortran and there is some set of functions that are called frequently then it may be worthwhile having versions of these that are tuned to the common case (whatever that might be). If the answer is R then what is the distribution pattern of R operations? There is a lot that can be done to speed up the R interpreter, but that project will need a lot more effort than is available in a summer of code and we need to get some idea of what the benefits for the general population might be.
To increase coverage of R usage the measurement tools should be made available for people to download and run on their own R code, and hopefully forwarding the output back some central collection point. For maximum portability this means writing the static analysis tools in R. By their very nature the dynamic analysis measurements have to be made via changes to the R system itself, getting users to download and use prebuilt binaries (or building from source) has always been fraught with problems; it is always hard o get users to buy into helping out with dynamic measurements.
Sophisticated static analysis consumes lots of compute resources. However, R programs tend to be short, so the required resources are unlikely to be that great in R’s case; even writing the analysis in R should not cause the resource requirements to be that excessive.
The only other language likely to share many of R’s language usage characteristics that I can think is APL. There have been a few published papers on APL usage, but these were not that wide ranging and probably not of much use. Perhaps somebody who worked for a now defunct APL compiler company has a copy of in-house performance analysis reports they can make available.
call by reference, call by value, compiler, dynamic analysis, Google, interpreter, object copying, optimizing, R, static analysis, vector length
What I found most intriguing about Google Code Search (shutdown Nov 2011) was how quickly searches involving regular expressions returned matches. A few days ago Russ Cox, the implementor of Code Search not only explained how it worked but also released the source and some precompiled binaries. Google’s database of source code did not include the source of R, so I decided to install CodeSearch on my local machine and run some of my previous searches against the latest (v2.14.1) R source.
In 2007 I ran an experiment that showed developers made use of variable names when making binary operator precedence decisions. At about the same time two cognitive psychologists, David Landy and Robert Goldstone, were investigating the impact of spacing on operator precedence decisions (they found that readers showed a tendency to pair together the operands that were visibly closer to each other, e.g.,
a+b * c rather than
As somebody very interested in finding faults in code the psychologists research findings on spacing immediately suggested to me the possibility that ‘incorrectly’ spaced expressions were a sign of failure to write code that had the intended behavior. Feeding some rather complicated regular expressions into Google’s CodeSearch threw up a number of ‘incorrectly’ spaced expressions. However, this finding went no further than an interesting email exchange with Landy and Goldstone.
Time to find out whether there are any ‘incorrectly’ spaced expressions in the R source.
cindex (the tool that builds the database used by
csearch) took 3 seconds on a not very fast machine to process all of the R source (56M byte) and build the search database (10M byte; the Linux database is a factor of 5.5 smaller than the sources).
csearch "\w(\+|\-)\w +(\*|\/) +\w"
returned a few interesting matches:
modules/internet/nanohttp.c: used += tv_save.tv_sec + 1e-6 * tv_save.tv_usec;
modules/lapack/dlapack0.f: $ ( T*( ONE+SQRT( ONE+S / T ) ) ) )
modules/lapack/dlapack2.f: S = Z( 3 )*( Z( 2 ) / ( T*( ONE+SQRT( ONE+S / T ) ) ) )
modules/lapack/dlapack4.f: $ ( T*( ONE+SQRT( ONE+S / T ) ) ) )
There were around 15 matches of code like
1e-6 * var (because the pattern \w is for alphanumeric sequences and that is not a superset of the syntax of floating-point literals).
ONE+S / T is just the sort of thing I was looking for. The three instances all involved code that processed tridiagonal matrices in various special cases. Google search combined with my knowledge of numerical analysis was not up to the task of figuring out whether the intended usage was
Searches based on various other combination of operator pairs failed to match anything that looked suspicious.
There was an order of magnitude performance difference for
grep -R -e (real 0m0.167s vs. real 0m2.208s). A very worthwhile improvement when searching much larger code bases with more complicated patterns.
The use of software in high value transactions has created an interesting new field of software research that investigates the leakage of information from programs. The kind of information leaked, so called side-band information, can take various forms, including:
- The amount of time taken to perform some operation. Many developers instinctively do their best to ensure that code does not take any longer to execute than it has to. In the case of one commonly used authentication system the time taken to fail to authenticate an encryption key provided useful information on how close one trial encryption-key was compared to another (the closer the trial key to the actual key the longer the authentication took to fail). The obvious implementation technique to foil this kind of attack is to add random delays into the authentication process.
It has even proved possible to perform timing attacks against a remote machine over the Internet to remote
- Use of some part of the value of secure information, by a system library function, to create the value passed back to the caller, e.g.,
if (secret_value & 0xf000) // Tell the caller that the top 'secret' four bits are set
Researchers have been able to analyse the information flow of input values through some very large C programs.
- Analyse of network traffic routing information to work out who is talking to who. Various kinds of anonymizers have been created in attempt to make various forms of Internet traffic untraceable.
Any Internet program is accessible to information flow analysis. Using these techniques to analyse the search algorithm used by Google might be overly ambitious. A Google algorithm that might be within reach of is the one used by Adwords; the behavior of this algorithm is of interest to a growing number of people.
Information leakage techniques are becoming more widely known and developers working on programs containing a security component now need to consider how they can prevent information being leaked to attackers who sample program behavior looking for exploitable weaknesses.