Archive

Posts Tagged ‘ecosystems’

Microcomputers ‘killed’ Ada

August 25th, 2017 No comments

In the mid-70s the US Department of Defense decided it could save lots of money by getting all its contractors to write code in the same programming language. In February 1980 a language was chosen, Ada, but by the end of the decade the DoD had snatched defeat from the jaws of victory; what happened?

I think microcomputers is what happened; these created whole new market ecosystems, some of which were much larger than the ecosystems that mainframes and minicomputers sold into.

These new ecosystems sucked up nearly all the available software developer mind-share; the DoD went from being a major employer of developers to a niche player. Developers did not want a job using Ada because they thought that being type-cast as Ada programmers would overly restricted their future job opportunities; Ada was perceived as a DoD only language (actually there was so little Ada code in the DoD, that only by counting new project starts could it get any serious ranking).

Lots of people were blindsided by the rapid rise (to world domination) of microcomputers. Compilers could profitably sold (in some cases) for tends or hundreds of dollars/pounds because the markets were large enough for this to be economically viable. In the DoD ecosystems compilers had to be sold for thousands or hundreds of thousands of dollars/pounds because the markets were small. Micros were everywhere and being programmed in languages other than Ada; cheap Ada compilers arrived after today’s popular languages had taken off. There is no guarantee that cheap compilers would have made Ada a success, but they would have ensured the language was a serious contender in the popularity stakes.

By the start of the 90s Ada supporters were reduced to funding studies to produce glowing reports of the advantages of Ada compared to C/C++ and how Ada had many more compilers, tools and training than C++. Even the 1991 mandate “… where cost effective, all Department of Defense software shall be written in the programming language Ada, in the absence of special exemption by an official designated by the Secretary of Defense.” failed to have an impact and was withdrawn in 1997.

The Ada mandate was cancelled as the rise of the Internet created even bigger markets, which attracted developer mind-share towards even newer languages, further reducing the comparative size of the Ada niche.

Astute readers will notice that I have not said anything about the technical merits of Ada, compared to other languages. Like all languages, Ada has its fanbois; these are essentially much older versions of the millennial fanbois of the latest web languages (e.g., Go and Rust). There is virtually no experimental evidence that any feature of any language is best/worse than any feature in any other language (a few experiments showing weak support for stronger typing). To its credit the DoD did fund a few studies, but these used small samples (there was not yet enough Ada usage to make larger sample possible) that were suspiciously glowing in their support of Ada.

Tags: ,

Ecosystems chapter added to “Empirical software engineering using R”

July 17th, 2017 No comments

The Ecosystems chapter of my Empirical software engineering book has been added to the draft pdf (download here).

I don’t seem to be able to get away from rewriting everything, despite working on the software engineering material for many years. Fortunately the sparsity of the data keeps me in check, but I keep finding new and interesting data (not a lot, but enough to slow me down).

There is still a lot of work to be done on the ecosystems chapter, not least integrating all the data I have been promised. The basic threads are there, they just need filling out (assuming the promised data sets arrive).

I did not get any time to integrate in the developer and economics data received since those draft chapters were released; there has been some minor reorganization.

As always, if you know of any interesting software engineering data, please tell me.

I’m looking to rerun the workshop on analyzing software engineering data. If anybody has a venue in central London, that holds 30 or so people+projector, and is willing to make it available at no charge for a series of free workshops over several Saturdays, please get in touch.

Projects chapter next.

Tags: , ,

Happy 30th birthday to GCC

March 22nd, 2017 No comments

Thirty years ago today Richard Stallman announced the availability of a beta version of gcc on the mod.compilers newsgroup.

Everybody and his dog was writing C compilers in the late 1980s and early 1990s (a C compiler validation suite vendor once told me they had sold over 150 copies; a compiler vendor has to be serious to fork out around $10,000 for a validation suite). Did gcc become the dominant open source because one compiler would inevitably become dominant, or was there some collection of factors that gave gcc a significant advantage?

I think gcc’s market dominance was driven by two environmental factors, with some help from a technical compiler implementation decision.

The technical implementation decision was the use of RTL as the optimization+code generation strategy. Jack Davidson’s 1981 PhD thesis (and much later the LCC book) describe the gory details. The code generators for nearly every other C compiler was closely tied to the machine being targeted (because the implementers were focused on getting a job done, not producing a portable compiler system). Had they been so inclined Davidson and Christopher Fraser could have been the authors of the dominant C compiler.

The first environment factor was the creation of a support ecosystem around gcc. The glue that nourished this ecosystem was the money made writing code generators for the never ending supply of new cpus that companies were creating (that needed a C compiler). In the beginning Cygnus Solutions were the face of gcc+tools; Michael Tiemann, a bright affable young guy, once told me that he could not figure out why companies were throwing money at them and that perhaps it was because he was so tall. Richard Stallman was not the easiest person to get along with and was probably somebody you would try to avoid meeting (I don’t know if he has mellowed). If Cygnus had gone with a different compiler, they had created 175 host/target combinations by 1999, gcc would be as well-known today as Hurd.

Yes, people writing Masters and PhD thesis were using gcc as the scaffolding for their fancy new optimization techniques (e.g., here, here and here), but this work essentially played the role of an R&D group trying to figure out where effort ought to be invested writing production code.

Sun’s decision to unbundle the development environment (i.e., stop shipping a C compiler with every system) caused some developers to switch to another compiler, some choosing gcc.

The second environment factor was the huge leap in available memory on developer machines in the 1990s. Compiler vendors cannot ship compilers that do fancy optimization if developers don’t have computers with enough memory to hold the optimization information (many, many megabytes). Until developer machines contained lots of memory, a one-man band could build a compiler producing code that was essentially as good as everybody else. An open source market leader could not emerge until the man+dog compilers could be clearly seen to be inferior.

During the 1990s the amount of memory likely to be available in developers’ computers grew dramatically, allowing gcc to support more and more optimizations (donated by a myriad of people targeting some aspect of code generation that they found interesting). Code generation improved dramatically and man+dog compilers became obviously second/third rate.

Would things be different today if Linus Torvalds’ had not selected gcc? If Linus had chosen a compiler licensed under a more liberal license than copyleft, things might have turned out very differently. LLVM started life in 2003 and one of my predictions for 2009 was its demise in the next few years; I failed to see the importance of licensing to Apple (who essentially funded its development).

Eventually, success.

With success came new existential threats, in particular death by a thousand forks.

A serious fork occurred in 1997. Stallman was clogging up the works; fortunately he saw the writing on the wall and in 1999 stepped aside.

Money is what holds together the major development teams supporting gcc and llvm. What happens when customers wanting support for new back-ends dries up, what happens when major companies stop funding development? Do we start seeing adverts during compilation? Chris Lattner, the driving force behind llvm recently moved to Tesla; will it turn out that his continuing management was as integral to the continuing success of llvm as getting rid of Stallman was to the continuing success of gcc?

Will a single mainline version of gcc still be the dominant compiler in another 30 years time?

Time will tell.