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Posts Tagged ‘data cleaning’

Almost all published analysis of fault data is worthless

December 27th, 2017 No comments

Faults are the subject of more published papers that any other subject in empirical software engineering. Unfortunately, over 98.5% of these fault related papers are at best worthless and at worst harmful, i.e., make recommendations whose impact may increase the number of faults.

The reason most fault papers are worthless is the data they use and the data they don’t to use.

The data used

Data on faults in programs used to be hard to obtain, a friend in a company that maintained a fault database was needed. Open source changed this. Now public fault tracking systems are available containing tens, or even hundreds, of thousands of reported faults. Anybody can report a fault, and unfortunately anybody does; there is a lot of noise mixed in with the signal. One study found 43% of reported faults were enhancement requests, the same underlying fault is reported multiple times (most eventually get marked as duplicate, at the cost of much wasted time) and …

Fault tracking systems don’t always contain all known faults. One study found that the really important faults are handled via email discussion lists, i.e., they are important enough to require involving people directly.

Other problems with fault data include: biased reported of problems, reported problem caused by a fault in a third-party library, and reported problem being intermittent or not reproducible.

Data cleaning is the essential first step that many of those who analyze fault data fail to perform.

The data not used

Users cause faults, i.e., if nobody ever used the software, no faults would be reported. This statement is as accurate as saying: “Source code causes faults”.

Reported faults are the result of software being used with a set of inputs that causes the execution of some sequence of tokens in the source code to have an effect that was not intended.

The number and kind of reported faults in a program depends on the variety of the input and the number of faults in the code.

Most fault related studies do not include any user related usage data in their analysis (the few that do really stand out from the crowd), which can lead to very wrong conclusions being drawn.

User usage data is very hard to obtain, but without it many kinds of evidence-based fault analysis are doomed to fail (giving completely misleading answers).

Data cleaning: The next step in empirical software engineering

June 2nd, 2013 No comments

Over the last 10 years software engineering researchers have gone from a state of data famine to being deluged with data. Until recently these researchers have been acting like children at a birthday party, rushing around unwrapping all the presents to see what is inside and quickly moving onto the next one. A good example of this are those papers purporting to have found a power law relationship between two constructs by simply plotting the data using log axis and drawing a straight line through the data; hey look, a power law, isn’t that interesting? Hopefully, these days, reviewers are starting to wise up and insist that any claims of a power law be checked.

Data cleaning is a very important topic that unfortunately appears to be missing from many researchers’ approach to data analysis. The quality of a model built from data is only as good as the quality of the data used to build it. Anybody who is interested in building models that connect to the real world of software engineering, rather than just getting another paper published, has to consider the messiness that gets added to data by the software developers who are intimately involved in the processes that generated the artifacts (e.g., source code, bug reports).

I have jut been reading a paper containing some unsettling numbers (It’s not a Bug, it’s a Feature: On the Data Quality of Bug Databases). A manual classification of over 7,000 issues reported against various large Java applications found that 42.6% of the issues were misclassified (e.g., a fault report was actually a request for enhancement), resulting in a change of status of 39% of the files once thought to contain a fault to not actually containing a fault (any fault prediction models built assuming the data in the fault database was correct now belong in the waste bin).

What really caught my eye about this research was the 725 hours (90 working days) invested by the researchers doing the manual classification (one person + independent checking by another). Anybody can extracts counts of this that and the other from the many repositories now freely available, generate fancy looking plots from them and add in some technobabble to create a paper. Real researchers invest lots of their time figuring out what is really going on.

These numbers are a wakeup call for all software engineering researchers. The data you are using needs to be thoroughly checked and be prepared to invest a lot of time doing it.