Posts Tagged ‘correlation’

Correlation between risk attitude and willingness to refer back

January 29th, 2012 No comments

What is the connection between a software developer’s risk attitude and the faults they insert in code they write or fail to detect in code they review? This is a very complicated question and in an experiment performed at the 2011 ACCU conference I investigated one particular instance; the connection between risk attitude and recall of previously seen information.

The experiment consisted of a series of problems having the same format (the identifiers used varied between problems). Each problem involved remembering information on four assignment statements of the form:

p = 6 ;
b = 4 ;
r = 9 ;
k = 8 ;

performing some other unrelated task for a short time (hopefully long enough for them to forget some of the information they had previously seen) and then having to recognize the variables they had previously seen within a list containing five identifiers and recall the numeric value assigned to each variable.

When reading code developers have the option of referring back to previously read code and this option was provided to subject. Next to each identifier listed in the recall part of the problem was space to write the numeric value previously seen and a “would refer back” box. Subjects were told to tick the “would refer back” box if, in real life” they would refer back to the previously seen assignment statements rather than rely on their memory.

As originally conceived this experimental format is investigating the impact of human short term memory on recall of previously seen code. Every time I ran this kind of experiment there was a small number of subjects who gave a much higher percentage of “would refer back” answers than the other subjects. One explanation was that these subjects had a smaller short term memory capacity than other subjects (STM capacity does vary between people), another explanation is that these subjects are much more risk averse than the other subjects.

The 2011 ACCU experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that there was a correlation between a subject’s risk attitude and the percentage of “would refer back” answers they gave. The Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT) questionnaire was used to measure subject’s risk attitude. This questionnaire and the experimental findings behind it have been published and are freely available for others to use. DOSPERT measures risk attitude in six domains: social, recreation, gambling, investing health and ethical.

The following scatter plot shows each (of 30) subject’s risk attitude in the six domains (x-axis) plotted against percentage of “would refer back” answers (y-axis).
Risk attitude plotted against percentage
A Spearman rank correlation test confirms what is visibly apparent, there is no correlation between the two quantities. Scatter plots using percentage of correct answers and total number of questions answers show a similar lack of correlation.

The results suggest that risk attitude (at least as measured by DOSPERT) is not a measurable factor in subject recall performance. Perhaps the subjects that originally caught my attention (there were three in 2011) really do have a smaller STM capacity compared to other subjects. The organization of the experiment (one hour during a one lunchtime of the conference) does not allow for a more extensive testing of subject cognitive characteristics.

Halstead’s metrics and flat-Earthers are still with us

August 18th, 2011 2 comments

I recently discovered a fascinating series of technical reports from the 1970s in the Purdue University e-Pubs archive that shine a surprising light on what are now known as the Halstead metrics.

The first surprises came from Halstead’s A Software Physics Analysis of Akiyama’s Debugging Data; surprising in the size of the data set used (nine measurements of four attributes), the amount of hand waving used to pluck numbers out of thin air, the substantial difference between the counting methods used then and now and the very high correlation found between various measured and calculated attributes.

I disagreed with the numbers Halstead plucked and wrote some R to check Halstead’s results and try out my own numbers. While my numbers significantly changed the effort estimation values, the high correlations between the number of faults and various source attributes remained high. Even changing from the Pearson correlation coefficient (calculating confidence bounds for this coefficient requires that the data be normally distributed, which it is not {program size is now thought to follow a power law/exponential like distribution}) to the Spearman rank correlation coefficient did not have much impact. Halstead seems to have struck luck with this data set.

What did Halstead’s colleagues at Purdue think of these metrics? The report Software Science Revisited: A Critical Analysis of the Theory and Its Empirical Support written four years after Halstead’s flurry of papers contains a lot of background material and points out the lack of any theoretical foundation for some of the equations, that the analysis of the data was weak and that a more thorough analysis suggests theory and data don’t agree. Damming stuff.

If it is known that Halstead’s metrics do not hold up why do writers of books (including Shen, Conte and Dunsmore, the authors of the above report) continue to discuss Halstead’s work? Are they treating this work like Astronomy authors treat Ptolemy’s theory (the Sun and planets revolved around the Earth), i.e., incorrect but part of history and worth a mention?

An observation in the Shen et al report, that Halstead originally proposed the metrics as a way of measuring the complexity of algorithms not programs, explains the background to the report Impurities Found in Algorithm Implementations. Halstead uses the term “impurities” and talks about the need for “purification” in his early work. In this report Halstead points out that the value of metrics for “algorithms written by students” are very different from those for the equivalent programs published in journals and goes on to list eight classes of impurity that need to be purified (i.e., removing or rewriting clumsy, inefficient or duplicate code) in order to obtain results that agree with the theory. Now we know what needs to be done to existing programs to get them to agree with the predictions made by the Halstead metrics!

Did Halstead strike lucky with the data used in his first published analysis of ‘industrial code’, obtaining a very high correlation that caused him to shift focus away from measuring algorithms to measuring programs? Unfortunately he died soon after publishing the work for which he is now known, so he did not get to comment on how his ideas were used over the subsequent years.

Why are people still attracted to the Halstead metrics, given their poor theoretical foundations and a predictive power that is comparable with using lines of code? Is it because the idea of code volume and length are easy to understand and so are attractive (dimensionally both of these metrics are the same, a fact that cannot hold for any self consistent concept of volume and length)? Is it because we don’t have alternative metrics that outperform the poorly performing ones proposed by Halstead, after all Copernicus only won out because his theory gave answers that were more accurate than Ptolomy’s.

Perhaps like the flat Earthers proponents of the Halstead metrics will always be with us.

Developers do not remember what code they have written

June 10th, 2011 No comments

The size distribution of software components used in building many programs appears to follow a power law. Some researchers have and continue to do little more than fit a straight line to their measurements, while those that have proposed a process driving the behavior (e.g., information content) continue to rely on plenty of arm waving.

I have a very simple, and surprising, explanation for component size distribution following power law-like behavior; when writing new code developers ignore the surrounding context. To be a little more mathematical, I believe code written by developers has the following two statistical properties:

  • nesting invariance. That is, the statistical characteristics of code sequences does not depend on how deeply nested the sequence is within if/for/while/switch statements,
  • independent of what went immediately before. That is the choice of what statement a developer writes next does not depend on the statements that precede it (alternatively there is no short range correlation).

Measurements of C source show that these two properties hold for some constructs in some circumstances (the measurements were originally made to serve a different purpose) and I have yet to see instances that significantly deviate from these properties.

How does writing code following these two properties generate a power law? The answer comes from the paper Power Laws for Monkeys Typing Randomly: The Case of Unequal Probabilities which proves that Zipf’s law like behavior (e.g., the frequency of any word used by some author is inversely proportional to its rank) would occur if the author were a monkey randomly typing on a keyboard.

To a good approximation every non-comment/blank line in a function body contains a single statement and statements do not often span multiple lines. We can view a function definition as being a sequence of statement kinds (e.g., each kind could be if/for/while/switch/assignment statement or an end-of-function terminator). The number of lines of code in a function is closely approximated by the length of this sequence.

The two statistical properties listed above allow us to treat the selection of which statement kind to write next in a function as mathematically equivalent to a monkey randomly typing on a keyboard. I am not suggesting that developers actually select statements at random, rather that the set of higher level requirements being turned into code are sufficiently different from each other that developers can and do write code having the properties listed.

Switching our unit of measurement from lines of code to number of tokens does not change much. Every statement has a few common forms that occur most of the time (e.g., most function calls contain no parameters and most assignment statements assign a scalar variable to another scalar variable) and there is a strong correlation between lines of code and token count.

What about object-oriented code, do developers follow the same pattern of behavior when creating classes? I am not aware of any set of measurements that might help answer this question, but there have been some measurements of Java that have power law-like behavior for some OO features.